  ## B.                DISCUSSION:

### 1.                  A PHOTON MODEL

It is proposed as an induction that a photon is composed of two "poles" of opposing characteristics such that one is + (positive) and the other is - (negative) charge, and they rotate about one another as the photon moves in a linear motion through a vacuum in space-time.  The distance, d, between the poles is inversely proportional to the energy, E, of the photon.  Thus a low energy photon will have relatively large separation of the poles and thus minimal interactions with one another, and a high energy photon will have a close, fast, relatively strong interaction.  The equation that governs the interpole distance, d and the energy, E, is:

E= L /d                                                                                                 eq 1

where the proportionality constant, L,  is given by:

L = 3.44378 x 10 -20  erg cm or  x 10-29 joule meters. Wavelength l

Fig 1 PHOTON MODEL Two poles, one + the other -, which rotate about each other such that the interpole distance, d, is inversely proportional to the Energy, E, E=L/d where L= 3.443780 x 10-29 J meters (or x10-21 erg cm)

Writing the familiar Planck182-4 equation:

E= hf  = hc/l                                                                                    eq 2

where h is the familiar 6.626196 x 10-27 erg sec (x 10 -34 joule sec).

We can combine these two to obtain:

(hC/L) d =  l  = L1 d                                                                     eq 3

and the constant      L1 = 5768.3351......                                                     eq 4

or more precisely from other theory presented later this is a pure number:

L1 = 6 p 6                                                                                                 eq 5

This interpole distance, d,  is relatively small, some 5768 times smaller than the familiar wavelength of the photons; yet it has been observed. The correlation between these observations and the wavelength just has not been recognized.

Since 1905 the famous Einstein 86-89 relationship of mass and energy implies that mass and energy are totally inter- convertible.

mC2 = E                                                                        eq 6,

This implies that mass is made of the quanta of energy.  Actually they are both aspects of the same thing.  The photon in free linear flight in a vacuum is mostly "energy like" and if the photon 1s constrained in one location in "rotational motion" it is mass like.  But there is a minimal residual mass like component to energy and a residual energy like component in mass. Thus photons have their dual nature, mass like and wave like, and all mass observes these same photonic equations, such as found in the Compton57 or de Broglie wavelength of mass, and the Heisenberg131 Uncertainty Principle. Close examination of the Schrodinger wave equation for example will show that it is a purely photonic equation, but it applies to all mass as well. This alone is very strong evidence that mass is photonic.

#### a)OBSERVATIONS OF THE INTERPOLE DISTANCE:

It is  proposed that all mass- particularly neutrons, protons and electrons, are made of photons and only photons.  In an electron or proton one pole of each of the photons is bound into a "core" and the free poles orbit create the charged field that we observe. Thus the electron with a - charge field has the + poles bound in the core and unavailable for electromagnetic interactions, and visa versa for the proton.

Thus if an electron and a proton are brought into proximity in a potentially stable position, one (+) pole in the core of the electron can replace one of the + orbiting photon poles of the interacting  field of the proton, and one (-) pole in the core of the proton can replace an interacting  - pole from the electron releasing a free pair of poles which can form a new  photon which can escape.  However; the distance of the two "cores" must exactly be the same as the photon interpole distance of the released photon and thus the atomic distances will control the energy of the released photon.  Thus there should be a correlation of the wavelength of the photon emitted and the atomic distances.  This is the relationship of l  = 5768 d found in equation 4 or 5 above. There are numerous examples, and we will list only a few.

If Chlorine atoms are allowed to join to form the molecule Cl2 then the photon released should match the known118 atomic "radii" of 0.98 Å, and indeed 5768 times that radius yields the wavelength 5650 Å or a yellowish green matching the color of chlorine gas exactly.  Bromine with radii 1.14 Å yields 6576 Å color; Iodine with 1.35 Å yields 7790 Å observed with instruments in the near IR but the half wave harmonic of 3890 Å matches the violet color exactly. HCl (and indeed the whole Hydrogen Halide series) match as well. Adding the radii of H to Cl we get 1.5 Å

(x 2 since the motion must be a repeat motion completing the cycle) and that matches the 1.72 to 1.82 micron observed resonance HCl band. This works for HBr, HI and HF as well.

Organic molecules118 offer numerous examples. Benzene for example with a hexagonal structure with sides 1.40 Å, and the Kekule' resonance is known to allow electrons to move across the ring.  They then would travel 5.60 Å total distance back and return, and this times 5768 matches exactly the 3.23 micron (3009 Kaysers) IR band observed for Benzene.  The complete circuit about the ring also is a possible electron resonance movement, with total distance 8.40 Å and the expected 4.85 micron and even stronger (x2) resonance at 9.69 microns confirms this relationship.

Toluene with a methyl group on a Benzene ring, should allow electrons to move either 10.8 or 11.7 Å depending on whether they start on the H or the carbon of the methyl group.  That should then yield IR bands of  6.25 and or 6.75 microns, exactly as observed. The CH2-CH2 bonds with radius 1.54 Å show the (x 4 the electron must go across two then back two radii)) predicted IR band at 3.55 microns etc.

#### b)POLARIZATION

If the photon moves in the x direction, and the poles rotate strictly in the xy plane then they will be Y polarized, If they rotate in the xz plane they will be Z polarized, and if they rotate in the yz plane forming a spiral (or more properly a double helix in space-) they will be "circularly  polarized". These have been suggested as "wheel", "Frisbee" and "pinwheel” or propeller motions.

#### c)ANGULAR SPIN

The total angular momentum or spin of a photon is known to be h/2p = (sub note: h is in Erg sec per cycle; or h bar is in Erg sec per radian, and we often forget to include the "dimensionless" angular units,  potentially a grave error).

The definition of angular momentum Ls is  m  v  x  r.                                       (eq 7)

Substituting the linear speed of the photon, C, for the velocity, v,  and bending the wavelength, l, into a circle with radius  r = l/2p then finally using the Planck equation E= hC/l we obtain:

Ls º m C l/2p =   h/2p =  h bar = eq 7a

#### d)CHARGE on a POLE

The charge on a pole may be found from the basic energy form of Coulomb's law:

E= k q q / r  where k = 8.9775 x 109 J.M./ C2                                   eq 8

from E = L /d  eq 1  and solving the above for the charge on a pole qp,

qp = 6.19004  x 10 -20 coulombs.                                                                     eq 9

This is roughly 1/3 the charge (1.6021917 x 10 -19 coulomb147) on an electron.  If we consider that three poles "orbiting" in a plane must always be 120°  apart, then we might expect the ratio to involve the sine of 120 degrees, and indeed

3 qp sine(120°) = 1.60822 x 10 -19 coulombs,                                               eq 10

less than 0.039 % difference (and even most of that can be accounted for in more precise models of the system accounting for the effect of the core poles). *** The more precise calculation must account for the relative distance of the spasons in the core themselves, relative to the distance of the orbiting poles. This for the electron will be the number of poles in the core, 3, times the width of each, 2 spasons units, or 6 divided by the total relative distance (1836.12 +6) and then corrected for the same sine 120° that was used above = 6/(1842.2)(sine 120)= 0.003761 or the charge will be 1.60822 x 10-19 divided by 1.003761 = 1.6021937 x 10-19, as compared to the observed / measured 1.6021917 x 10 -19 coulomb about 1 ppm difference from observed values.

### 2.                  PARTICLES- Electrons and Protons,    Neutrons and other “resonance states”

#### a)THE MASS RATIO OF ELECTRON TO PROTON  Mp / me It is proposed that an electron consists of three poles which orbit such that the repeating element is the new inter pole distance, d. .  The proton on the other hand is composed of five photons whose poles orbit such that the repeating element is the "Compton wavelength" or , lp,   of the photons.

In order to compare the two masses or the two energies of these it will be necessary to put the motions on a similar basis. We desire to find the mass ratios (or the energy ratios) of electron to proton:

Mp/me   =  le/ lp                                                                               eq 11

The two types of photon motion relate to one another like the circumference of a circle to the diameter, thus the 5 photons in the proton will each need to be multiplied by p to compare like (radius to circumference) terms. Then it is necessary to remove two photons from the collection of five to obtain three photons as in the electron.  In removal of two photons, six bonds, six energy causing relationships, what ever they are, must be broken.  There are three remaining photons so there are three bonds broken for each of the two removed; note that the alternative first breaking four to remove one photon and then breaking three to remove the second is not correct since the bond between the two removed photons does not necessarily have to be broken. Thus the comparison should yield a factor of precisely 6 p5.

Mp/me   =  le/ lp       = 6 p5                                                                         eq 12

Note that this is very similar to eq 8  and that the mass ratio of proton to electron also relates to photons such that

Mp/me  =  L1 / p =   6 p 5                                                                  eq 13

6 p5  = 1836.1181..  compared to the observed

1836.152701(37) ± 0.020 ppm

*** (For more precision  Mp/me = 6p5 (1+{6p/106}) = 1836.152719              eq 14

versus 1836.152701(37) ± 0.020 ppm accounting for the actual spason "sizes" {6p/106} in the cores of the two particles.

The positron is the same sort of motion as the electron,  but with opposite (-) poles being in the core; and in the field (+) so the mass ratio of antiproton to positron will be the same, and just the charges will be  different.  The proton is a more complex sort of double helix spiral within a spiral motion, and that is partially why the mass is higher- there is a larger repeat element to the motion, and mass is just this repeating motion.

Newton's "A body in motion tends to stay in motion, and a body at rest tends to stay at rest", thus has a deeper meaning than has classically been interpreted as this motion gives rise to momentum and thus the resistance to change in motion, which is mass. The original statement thus is more general and applies below the domain of mass - momentum.

#### b)MAGNETIC MOMENT of an ELECTRON

The magnetic moment of an electron should be the well established Bohr magneton

Mag Moment e- = /2 me                                                                             (eq 15)

but with a minor correction factor for the three poles in the core with a radius of 3 (diameter 6) parts in 1836.11 with a space filling factor of the square root of 2, or three or  3/(1836.11)(Ö2) = 0.001155 or a multiplier of the base Bohr magneton of 1.001155 which is relatively close to the observed value147 of 1.0011596.  reported.

#### c)NUCLEAR  MAGNETIC  MOMENTS

The proton requires a different sort of correction from the electron. The expected Bohr nuclear value would be

e /2mp                                                                                                         (eq 16)

However, this is not quite what is observed. The value is based on the charge being a single entity, one  unit charge, when it really is made up of five parts. It has two pairs of "u quarks" (interactions) with + 2/3 charge and one d quark (interaction) with -1/3 charge, or really four photons with captured - poles {and free + poles}, with one photon with a captured + pole {and free - pole}. Because of this there is a correction factor of 2/3 for each + "quark pair" or as I prefer to state it 4/9 total for the two unexpected 1/3 momentum photon poles, plus another general correction of 2p  for the conversion of the linear wavelength to a rotary motion, or a total of

8 p/9 = 2.79252                                                                                            (eq 17)

which is relatively close to the 2.792782 observed147.

### 3.                  COMPARING THE MASS OF PROTON AND PI MESON

The Pion or Pi meson is proposed to be three photons in the same general type orbits (repeat motion being wavelength) as the proton. The comparison of the motions of that and the proton indicates that "swept area" should be p(5x2 + 1)2 where the +1 is needed to prevent the movement from precisely repeating, and since there are three units in the pion that would be p32 area or with a final factor of 2 needed as the two bonds are broken to go from proton with 5 bonds to pion with 3 bonds  the total should be:

mpion = 2{ p32/ p(5 x 2 + 1)2} mp = 18/ 121 mp    eq  18

and since the mass of the proton in mev is 938.2593) or the total is   mpion = 18/121 (938.2593 in mev) = 139.57574  mev calculated  versus 139.576  observed147.

#### a)OBSERVATION OF THREE UNITS or PHOTONS PER ELECTRON/POSITRON AND FIVE initial UNITS or PHOTONS PER PROTON/ANTI-PROTON

In the very high energy collision of a proton and anti-proton observed at Fermi lab or the positron-electron collisions from CERN it is possible to show that there were ten basic units or showers (5 from each particle) at the start of the collision of the proton and anti-proton, and six basic units or showers from the electron - positron collision. The shower of particles released from the proton- anti-proton collision seen for example on the cover of Scientific American March 1982 issue or Physics Today  Feb. 1982 page 17,  can be easily re-constructed, putting obvious showers or pairs that split after the collision back together until only ten rays are seen leaving the original site.  The electron positron  collision shows six total "showers" as seen Scientific American June 1983 p 107, et. al. This would tend to support the fundamental induction as to the structure of the "fundamental" stable particles. Fig 2 PROTON / Anti-proton Collision Showing ten showers for the pair of particles (Modified from From Scientific American March 1982)

In the TEV high energy collision of the positron-electron collisions from CERN there are six basic units or showers from the collision. The recombined electron positron collision showers all show six total initial "showers" as seen Scientific American June 1983 p 107, et. al. This would tend to support the fundamental induction as to the structure of the "fundamental" stable particles.

### 4.                  THE MASS OF SEVERAL SHORT LIVED RESONANCE STATES, misc. PARTICLES:

The core of the proton has a diameter of 33 spasons, or where x is the distance of one spason, the size is 33 x, and thus the cross section is 3/2 (33 x)2. This same factor of then should relate to the spectrum of resonance states for all spin 1/2 particles, and as we add more and more protons to the system, there should be a series of short lived “particles”  which mass these mass additions.  The mass of these resonance states should be related to the mass of proton and electron by (the mass of proton is 938.2597 mev and mass of electron is 0.51104 mev):

Mrs   = Mp  + 3/2(33)(n)(me )= 938.2597 mev + 25.295 eq 19

This has been examined for the first 40 or so n eignevalues, and particles are known for most of these. They are:

n     value               particle147

1     963.55                        eta’, h’ = 957.6 ±1.7  and delta  d = 966.4  ±11.9

2     988.84

3     1014.14          phi(1015), j (1015)=  1015.16 ±1.15 (also eta 1020)

4     1039.43

5     1064.73          eta (1058), h(1058) 1058.67 ±26, and A-1 1076 ±31

6     1090.03          L(1087) 1087 and  1080) hl = 1087.8 ± 2.3

7     1115.32          L(1115) = 1115.59 ±0.06

8     1140.61

9     1165.91

10   1191.21          S+1189.42 ±0.11 S 1192.51 ±0.10 and S- 1197.37 ±0.07

11   1216.50

12   1241.79          Do(1241) = 1234.6 ±2.5 (note 3/2 spin)

13   1267.09          f(1260) = 1264.96  ±10.87

14   1292.38          A2  = 1300.4  ±15   A(1285) = 1295.7  ±19.7

15   1317.68          Xo =1314.7 ±0.7, X- =1321.31 ±0.017, A2-K =1315.26 ±16.28

16 1342.97

17 1368.26

18 1393.56           S(1385)(3/2 spin), S+ 1381.63±4.44; So 1386.71±4.31

S-1387.72±6.7; L(1400) 1400.8±8

19 1418.85           L(1405) 1411.3±6; E(1422) 1422±2.5; Ks 1425.3±13.5

Kn(1420) 1416.3±14.76

20 1444.15           N(1440) 1448.6±42

21 1469.45           N(1470) 1470

22 1494.74           f’(1514) 1492±26.7

23 1520.03           L(1520) 1516.3±4;  N(1520) 1523.89±10

24 1545.33

25 1570.62

26 1595.92

27 1621.21           S(1620) 1623.75±12

28 1646.51           P  A 1645.25±25; jA(1650)1648.2±25; D 1639±24

29 1671.81           S 1669.6±9; L(1670)1673±7.6; g(1660)1664.2±41

30 1697.10           S 1698.6±11.9; L(1690) 1689.7±6.7; P(1710)1690.4±27

31 1722.39           N(1700) 1712±25; L(1720) 1727±64

32 1747.68           L(1750) 1746.6±35; R(1750) 1750.6±12.2; N(1745) 1745±8.1

33 1772.98           S(1750) 1773.5±23.3; S(1765)1764.8±8; Z(1780); L(1770)

1767±14.5

34 1798.28           X* (1800)

35 1823.57           X 1828±23; L 1828.67±11; L(1815)(5/2 spin); Z(1823)

36 1848.86           L(1860) 1836.8±64; N 1843±41

37 1874.16           L(1870) 1876±65

38 1899.45           S(1880) 1900.5±43; S(1915) 1907±13

39   1924.74          S(1900) 1921 ±18,  S(1930) 1938 ±24

40   1950.04          S(1940); X(1940) 1937  ±24

41 1975.34           S(1970)

42 2000.63           L(2010) 2010±30;  N(1900) 1989±8.1

43 2025.52           S(2030) 2028.2±12;(2023±12); X(2030); L(2020)

44 2051.22           X(2040) 2044±19

45 2076.51           S(2070) 2070

46 2101.80           S(2100) 200±42; L(2100)2110±16

The probability of decay or the lifetime of these short lived resonance states may be calculated using potential well type calculations with the familiar Schrodinger equation.  Since this is not new it will not be presented at this time; however,  it should be noted that the Schrodinger equation was derived for photons and the fact that it can be used to compute half lives for these particles is very strong support for the contention that all of these particles are made of photons and only photons in specific resonance states.

#### a)                  SPIN 3/2 resonance states

The second series of resonance states, or short lived particles,  comes with the spin 3/2 which is a bit more complex, with pi meson like resonances. The pi meson which corresponds to the “bare” s quark interaction links this series to the neutron and the series is:

Mpi = 2{ p32/ p(5 x 2 + 1)2} mp = 18/ 121 m             eq 18(repeated)

= (18/ 121) 938.2527 mev = 139.576  mev

and the resonance states are:

MRS2/3  = MN  + i (Mpi) + j (2.924 ) mev                                         eq 20

MRS2/3   = 939.5527 + 139.576 i + 2.924 j                                               eq 21

where i and j are integer values

The 2.924 mev is a correction for the spin reversal of each of the photons in the basic neutron core which goes with the interaction of a “s” type quark (note quarks are really interactions, not particles and this corrects the spin reversal for this type interaction) and starting with the neutron (6 photons) this then gives rise to predicted short lived resonance states of:

939.5527 + 3(2.924) + 139.576    =  1087.90

939.5527 + 6(2.924) + 2(139.576) =  1236.25

939.5527 + 9(2.924) + 3(139.576) =  1384.60

or (1236.25 + 3(2.924) + 139.576)

(each can be built up from the prior resonance state)

939.5527 + 2(2.924) + 4(139.576) =  1530.02

or (1384.60 +2(2.924) + 139.576 )

939.5527 + 2(2.924) + 5(139.576) =  1672.52

compared to the observed spin +3/2 “particles”:

h (1087) = 1087.6 ± 2.3

D (1238) = 1234.65 ± 2.51

S*(1385) = 1385.35 ± 5.21

X*(1530) = 1530.01 ± 2.2

W (1676) = 1672.50 ± 9.1

or for spin -3/2:

939.5527 + 8(2.924) + 4(139.576)  = 1521.25

939.5527 + 8(2.924) + 5(139.576)  = 1660.82

939.5527 + 8(2.924) + 6(139.576)  = 1800.40

compared to the observed

N* (1520) = 1523.89 ± 10.36

S* (1660) = 1660    ± 11

X* (1800) = 1800    ± 21

In short all of the short lived resonance states thus far observed can be accounted for by some combination of photons. These are NOT actually fundamental particles at all, in that they decay to the few actually stable particles, but they are just photon resonance states whose life times are relatively accurately determined by photon based probability equations. This last, if nothing else should convince us that we are really dealing with photons.

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