In examination of the rate at which species have been changing, the rate of speciation, the rate of creation of new species has been increasing exponentially. This can be seen by plotting log of Geologic time (y axis) versus the time for major generalized changes (speciation) to take place. The results have converged to such short time that genetic engineering was predicted more than a decade before it really happened. This is shown below.
This also applies to mankind. This is easily seen in the last few entries in table of civilizations.
THE PROGRESSION OF HOMONIDS and NEW SPECIES
Earlier in the chapter on 700 year cycles and the progressions chapter, the evolution of homonids has been mentioned. In the past this took the form of perhaps a dozen known prior species, many of which we have not called "Homo" at all because they were so ape like. A partial list is abstracted below from Table 2 But in this case several "bridge" species have been projected and predicted to make the whole series more regular.
Table 29 (2c)HOMONIDS (1000 yrs)
name time duration
Australopithecus afarensis 3,800- 2,900 900
Australopithecus africanus 3,300- 2,500 800
* projected bridge species 2,800- 2,100 700
Homo Habilis 2,425- 1,775 650
* bridge species 2 2,075- 1,525 550
* bridge species 3 1,750- 1,250 500
African Homo erectus 1,475- 1,000 475
European H. erectus 1,240- 780 500
Archaic European Homonids 1,025- 610 415
Transitional H. Cro-Magnon 780- 450 330
Abbeyvilian 575- 275 300
Clacotnian(Old Acheulean) 400- 175 225
Levalloisian 230- 110 120
Micoguian 145- 95 50
Mousterian 95- 60 35
Tayacian (end Cro-Magnon) 55- 35 28
Lower Perigordian/Chatelcession 36- 23 14
Aurignacian (clearly H sapiens) 25- 17 8
Upper Perigordian/Gravettian 18- 12 6
Magdalenian 14- 10 4
Azilian 10.5- 8.75 2
Clovis (New World) 10- 8.5 1
A plot of these data with abscissa, X axis in mean years ago, versus the Y ordinate axis of time for start, end, and duration is shown in figures 10, and 11; with the more recent time expanded in figures 12, and 13. It is clear that changes in species are proceeding more rapidly in more recent history. This is merely a continuation of the faster production of new species that has been going on for eons. Shown in figure 14 is a plot of time for several other species over much longer geological times. Thus the conclusions are well based when it is predicted that new species of men will appear and humanity will change ever more rapidly in the future also. In fact the changes will happen so rapidly, and the overlapping of species be so much, that it will to all practical purposes be come a continuous rather than discontinuous process.
The predictions of probable new species has already been alluded to, and the precise definitions, as best as can be done at present, are shown in figure 30. The time scale involved is not totally clear, but there are some generalities which can be stated. The Physical characteristics probably will have some modification, but the primary differences will be mental, determinable from actions and objective characteristics for which there are tests.
Some of the nouns as first used were descriptions depending subtle spelling connotations: man, Man, god, God, GOD- but the upper and lower case distinctions can not be used in verbal conversation and they also are strictly speaking not quite scientific. The word Man is a higher variety of man -Genus Homo. The word god is godlike relative to prior men, but lacks full attribution. God is closer but GOD is fully attributed. The second set of descriptions Homo superior, Homo stellaris etc. describes these new species from another thought process.
There are three things needed for speciation, creation of a new species: 1) variability, 2) isolation, and 3) selection factor(s). The human race has people of considerable variability, that condition now already exists.
The gravity well of Earth will tend to provide the isolation. Few or no people of low ability will be launched out of that gravity well. The cost of launching a person into space is high, right now of the order of $1000 per pound, perhaps $100,000 to $200,000 per person, that it will be uneconomic to pay for people of low ability. Each spaceman (or space woman to be "politically correct") must be economically self sustaining or space travel will not pay for itself, which in the long run it must.
H. superior has the high IQ abilities needed to survive in space. The genius can sweep floors and wash dirty laundry. The inept person can not do the tasks which will be required of those who are launched. Space travel is dangerous and probably will continue to be so. Space travel and space living have unusual hazards such as vacuum, lack of air, solar radiation and temperature extremes not easy to understand and to control so that they will kill the unwary person. The technology for growing food and environmental control demands mental skills to maintain viable conditions. These requirements select for best ability, & against lower mental ability. It is possible to argue against use of IQ as a basis for measurement of ability or intelligence. While there may be flaws in testing for IQ, it is a well known concept, and most other achievement tests also can be expressed in terms of IQ. Thus it is convenient. It also communicates the general concept with as much precision as is needed. If there is a better quantitative test that could be used instead of IQ.
Thus Homo superior is "space man" in orbit, first in earth and moon colonies, and later in solar colonies in orbit about the sun. The early spacemen will be building colonies in LEO (Low Earth Orbit), on the moon to mine low(er) cost materials, and after that in L4 and L5. The cost of lifting mass up from Earth is too much not to use "moon-rocks", lunar materials as modified where possible. The moon-rocks, some much like the composition of lava, have Fe, Al, Ti, and sufficient Oxygen. There is energy from the sun to perform needed modification and or separation of the elements, or to change the native materials into more useful forms of material. The one most needful element which is in short supply is hydrogen. Probably H2 will eventually come from Jupiter and/or the rings of Saturn.
Space colonies will probably be built at L4 and L5 positions, the names of which comes from the Lagrange points which are stable in Earth - moon orbit. There are 5 additional stable positions in Earth orbit synchronous with the lunar orbit. These are at the same distance and period as the moon but one is exactly opposed to the moon, with others at 60 and 120 degrees leading and 60 and 120 degrees trailing the moon. Thus it is also possible and highly probable to build up a "hexagon" of huge space colonies orbiting about Earth. The "overflow" Earth population will eventually be housed there.
But the concept of space "Cities" does not stop there, five similar colonies can also be established in solar Earth orbit, forming a hexagon starting at Earth position at the 5 additional LaGrangian points. Mars and Venus also offer such opportunities, with the note that Venus is too hot and Mars too cold. But the Asteroids are even more attractive on an early basis. The asteroid position would place them on the"trade routes" of cheap hydrogen-rich mass coming form the outer system into the near Solar orbits. Thus I can with confidence predict that there will be more people in space within 2 to 3 centuries than on Earth itself. These people will tend to be in all ways superior to those residing now on Earth. Selection in all ways will contribute to that.
One selection factor not yet mentioned which deserves at least a brief note will be "genetic engineering" to select desirable genes for wanted potential babies, while culling out the defective or unwanted genes. That process may be difficult to do on earth with irrational religious beliefs and the more "primitive" natural means being preferred, but the H superior will not hesitate to use such methods. This will tend to eliminate hemophilia, and such as well as many cancer causing or at least cancer susceptible genes, while enhancing genes with proven value such as resistance to diseases, and probably mental ability. Thus the life span and ability should increase ever more rapidly than any time before. I do wish to note that I fear we are not intelligent enough completely to know which genes and characteristics are valuable and which are not. Thus I expect errors. Some like sickle cell and proclivity to cancer are obviously bad, and others like good teeth are obviously good. But what about blue eyes versus brown, or hairy arms and chest for men versus no hair? I can't imagine sufficient reasons for making a decision for either of those. But despite setbacks, we will make progress.
Homo stellaris is somewhat more speculative, but extends from the same logic that was used to deduce H superior. The jump to the nearer stars is very much a one way trip. That provides the same sort of isolation and selection factors as the Earth spaceman situation. Only the best of the best in solar orbit will be selected for stellar trips. The time for a trip to Tau Ceti for example is roughly 20-30 years round trip for those who stay at home and observe it and 6 years for those who go. Tau Ceti is relatively close as stars go at only 9.6 light years away and is the nearest G type non-binary star that might have planets. The Alpha, Beta and Proximata Centaurus system is binary / tertiary and probably does not have planets, thus there is no place to land and "refuel" so it is less attractive. Thus Tau Ceti represents minimal time distance condition for stellar travel. As one contemplates stars further away, the time for observers on Earth goes up in direct relationship to the distance, each light year takes one year of travel or more. The time for the traveler is; however, roughly proportional to the square root of distance because of the Lorenz (Einstein) time dilation effect. Time passes apparently slower for the person as he nears the speed of light. Thus a trip of say 100 light years takes 200 plus years relative to the observers, and only 36 years for the traveler. That makes it a very much "one way trip" into the future if nothing else. This is the old
"A man can not step twice into the same stream" but with a vengeance. Thus we can predict that H stellaris will be both longer lived, and smarter, but the guess as to how much is just that, an educated guess. It is based on numerology, but I will not grace the mathematics used with the word science. Still it is based on reason and plotting variables, and perhaps application of the concept that the most likely relationship is a linear plot.
The Next two proposed species are even more speculative, Stellaris is even a new genus, a hominid, which is transcendent of man, genus Homo, and in the latter case, S. secundum, able to operate outside of our space-time continuum itself, i.e. in the literal sense "eternal" meaning outside of time.
Time is change. To have change implies that there must be something there to change. Thus time can not exist without space. Conversely space without time would be unchanging and thus not very interesting. Thus the two words space and time are linked in reality. To be eternal also implies outside of our space, - our universe. When I try to imagine that, I get only very general concepts, and the picture becomes very vague indeed. None the less we can with good results try to imagine the characteristics of such a being. Those characteristics then give us a personal goal. Worship, "worthy sipe" means to emulate, to become worthy of, and thus it gives us a set of goals to emulate. So the mental exercise may after all be worth more than anything else in this work if it gives us a motivation to "become like GOD"- with understandable goals to achieve as the race proceeds to GODhood.
Note I do not claim Homo sapiens will become GOD, or even god. I do claim our eventual far descendants may achieve this. And if their ethics match what I project them to be, they will repay us for our efforts on their behalf, many times over at that. GODs are not stingy.
Returning to H. superior for a moment, something like this has been projected before in other words by other people. Frederick Nietzsche for example projected a "superman" which was the basis of Hitler's Ayrian master race theory and policies. Hitler came very near to proving his point by the way, by taking over considerable territory, with war potential far in excess of what the numbers of people involved would indicate. The technology for example was increased in Germany to far exceed what should have been expected from their numerical population. This happened since those who believed themselves to be superior and were told that they were superior performed in a superior way. In the end Germany was swamped by pure numerical superiority. Their machines always tended to be superior on a one to one basis, but they were inundated and defeated, overwhelmed by sheer numbers, by the population of the rest of the "free world". There is a flaw in selection of any one sub-race, or selection against any sub-race. Earth has created human variability because we lived in a variety of conditions. We as a race need to preserve that variability. Thus I am mildly opposed to most, but not all, interracial marriage, as I propose that we need to preserve differences, rather than homogenize them out of existence. We will probably, even almost certainly, need those differences in the future.
In "times of old when men were bold" bigger and stronger in men
counted for more than brains, but an oaf with brute strength who got himself into unnecessary battles also tended not to survive. Thus selection was for larger and larger size and strength with only mild selection for "wisdom." In space, as in some of the Asian nations, smaller size, requiring fewer resources may be a survival factor. The large strong "ox" or "cow" who can not survive on a half cylinder of oxygen until rescued will die where the smaller man or petite girl will survive. The question here is whether vital resources will be scarcer or not. This can be argued either direction, and if basic needs are plentiful, then the smaller size will not be a factor. The key point is that past selection factors need not continue and we must expect changes in direction.
: LISTING AND DATES FROM PREVIOUS SPECIES LEADING TO HOMO SAPIENS
With . this in mind it is possible to project into the future, and deduce that mankind will continue to evolve into other new species. This; however, will almost certainly be different from past speciation, in that it will become self directed speciation and "evolution". There are all too many signs that man-- or what man will shortly become, is about to take charge of his own destiny, Here is a list of characteristics of the next few probable species.
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